Two of several plays Lessing wrote during the time he spent in Berlin, where between to he was a drama and literary critic. Translated in and known as the first tragedy of middleclass life in German drama and which marked a break with the French drama that dominated the German stage. It was performed successfully in Frankfurt an der Oder. Journal founded by Lessing, Mendelssohn and Nicolai, which ran until In was here that Lessing insisted that Shakespeare would be a better model for German dramatists that the classical French dramatists.
It carried us from the region of poverty-stricken notions to the open country of thought. The first German comedy on a grand scale and its first political play. The Letters on Archaeology were published between and The venture failed in Lessing collected his papers from this period and published them in two volumes.
In , de Margency was subject to a creative crisis. According to Martin Fontius, a German literary theorist, "sooner or later a book entitled The Aesthetic Ideas of Grimm will have to be written. He studied at the University of Leipzig, where he came under the influence of Johann Christian Gottsched and of Johann August Ernesti, to whom he was largely indebted for his critical appreciation of classical l.
Its opening sentence: "Everything is good as it leaves the hands of the Author of things; everything degenerates in the hands of man". Rousseau seeks to describe a system of education th. Women letter writers in early modern Europe created lengthy correspondences, where they expressed their intellect and their creativity; in the process, they also left a rich historic legacy. Over time, a large number of women's correspondences have been made the subject of publications.
Some among them ignored the literary value of these missives that were sometimes circulated by their recipients.
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It is usually agreed that what makes these letter. Ferdinando Galiani. Friedrich Nietzsche referred to him as "a most fastidious and refined intelligence"  as well as " Galiani showed early promise as an economist, and even more as a wit. By the age of twenty-two, after he took orders, he had produced two works by which his name became widely known far beyond the bounds of his own Naples.
The one, his Della Moneta, a disquisition on coinage in which he shows himself a strong supporter of mercantilism, deals with many aspects of the question of exchange, but always with a special reference t. It collected duties on behalf of the King plus hefty bonus fees for themselves , under renewable six-year contracts.
Biography, Diaries and Letters
Their sons or grandsons purchased patents of nobility and t. Author Mary Wollstonecraft The role of women in the Enlightenment is debated. It is acknowledged that women during this era were not considered of equal status to men, and much of their work and effort were suppressed. For many women, these avenues furthered their roles in society and created stepping stones for future progress. For those women who were able to discuss and advance new ideals, discourse on religion, political and social equality, and sexuality became prominent topics in the salons, debating societies, and in print.
While women in England and France gained arguably more freedom than their counterparts in other countries, the role of women in the Enlightenment was typically reserved for those of middle and upper class families, able to access money.
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She supported the controversial political play Les Philosophes by Palissot to be set. She is much known for the story of her breakup with the rich Auguste Louis Bertin; when she was discovered with a younger lover, Bertin ordered her to leave the house which he paid for and kept for her , with nothing but what she could carry with her inside her dress. Retrieved Louis-Martin Berthault 30 September — 16 August was a French architect, decorator, engraver and landscape artist.
Carvillon engaged Berthault to transform the gardens from the French style to that of an English park. After the Empire was established in , Berthault extended his clientele to aristocrats who returned from exile and regained possession of their pro. He was styled with the courtesy title duc d'Ayen Duke of Ayen from till , and currently with the French title duc de Noailles Duke of Noailles. Career He began his career in the diplomacy and he served with the economic cooperation group of the Minister of F. On 30 June , he married Louise-Elisabeth Chambon, reputed to be more than promiscuous.
But even though, she had a son, June 7, She died in December , struck down by smallpox. We know he led political missions in Geneva.
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Louis of Lorraine 13 February — 9 September was a member of a cadet branch of the House of Lorraine, the House of Guise and known as the prince de Lambesc. Biography The older of two children born to the Count and Countess of Brionne, he had a younger sister, Marie Louise — who died unmarried. He was later created the Governor of Anjou in and in , he was made a Brigadier of the King's armies. The couple had six children, two of which would have issue. He died in being outlived by his wife by seven years. Biography Claude was born in Fontainebleau, but as she was believed to have been conceived at Chateau d'Anet, she was nicknamed as 'Mademoiselle d'Anet' at court, a nickname that displeased her mother.
Designed by Paul Tournon, decorated by many major artists of the day, and consecrated in , the church is considered one of the most significant examples of modern ecclesiastical design in France. Most of these churches were built of cement and brick. In , cardinal Jean Verdier decided to take the program even further, decreeing that it would be necessary, over the next few years, to construct a hundred churches for the diocese. The success of Verdier's plan was total; in the sixtieth construction site was inaugurated, and in alone sevent. The story concerns the fictional adventures of Mozart on a visit to the French capital.
Guitry wrote to Hahn, on holiday in Cannes, who seized the opportunity with great joy, and the collaboration was excellent.
His most notable works are an imitation of Eloisa to Abelard by Alexander Pope and a translation of the first two sections of Night-Thoughts by Edward Young. He also naturalized Ovid's term. Then he came to his philosophy at College o. He was named after Saint Francis of Assisi. Marriage and children Francis married Isabella, his double first cousin, on 10 October There is evidence that Isabella would rather have married his younger brother, Infante Enrique, Duke of Seville, and complained bitterly about her husband's effeminate habits after their first night together.
Twelve children were born during the marriage, of whom five reached adulthood: Isabella, Princess of Asturias — : married her mother's and father's f. She was regent of Lorraine and Bar during the minority — and absence of her son — , and suo jure Princess of Commercy — As a petite-fille de France, she was entitled to have the style of Her Royal Highness, as well as the right to an armchair in the presence of the King. She is known for the development of ecofeminist thinking. Among her main publications is Ecofeminismo para otro mundo posible Ecofeminism for Another Possible World; She was the first celebrated French fashion designer and is widely credited with having brought fashion and haute couture to the forefront of popular culture.
Life Rose Bertin was the daughter of Nicolas Bertin d. She came from a family of small means; her mother worked as a sick nurse, which at the time was a profession with very low salary and status, and the financial situation became even worse after the death of her father. Catherine de Bourbon 7 February — 13 February was a Navarrese princess. She was named after her godmother, the French queen Catherine de' Medici.
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Jeanne converted to Calvinism a year after Catherine's birth and declared it the official religion of the Kingdom of Navarre. Antoine, conversely, remained a Catholic and turned against his wife and threatened to divorce her. He died fighting for the Catholic cause on 17 November Catherine was with her mother and elder brother, Henry, as they fought for the Protestant cause.
During the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre, Catherine and her brother. It is one of the author's more popular works, along with The Three Musketeers.
Like many of his novels, it was expanded from plot outlines suggested by his collaborating ghostwriter Auguste Maquet. It begins just before the Hundred Days period when Napoleon returned to power after his exile. The historical setting is a fundamental element of the book, an adventure story primarily concerned with themes of hope, justice, vengeance, m.
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He married three times and through his daughter, is an ancestor of the present House of Savoy. Louis' wife with the duc de Choiseul. Styled as the Count of Brionne in his youth, he was later known as the Prince of Lambesc.
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