At issue was the question of whether the aesthetic intentions of the artist in creating the work of art, whatever its specific form, should be associated with the criticism and evaluation of the final product of the work of art, or, if the work of art should be evaluated on its own merits independent of the intentions of the artist. In , William K. Wimsatt and Monroe Beardsley published a classic and controversial New Critical essay entitled " The Intentional Fallacy ", in which they argued strongly against the relevance of an author's intention , or "intended meaning" in the analysis of a literary work.
For Wimsatt and Beardsley, the words on the page were all that mattered; importation of meanings from outside the text was considered irrelevant, and potentially distracting. This fallacy would later be repudiated by theorists from the reader-response school of literary theory. One of the leading theorists from this school, Stanley Fish , was himself trained by New Critics. Fish criticizes Wimsatt and Beardsley in his essay "Literature in the Reader" As summarized by Berys Gaut and Livingston in their essay "The Creation of Art": "Structuralist and post-structuralists theorists and critics were sharply critical of many aspects of New Criticism, beginning with the emphasis on aesthetic appreciation and the so-called autonomy of art, but they reiterated the attack on biographical criticisms' assumption that the artist's activities and experience were a privileged critical topic.
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So details of the act of creating a work, though possibly of interest in themselves, have no bearing on the correct interpretation of the work. Gaut and Livingston define the intentionalists as distinct from formalists stating that: "Intentionalists, unlike formalists, hold that reference to intentions is essential in fixing the correct interpretation of works. A large number of derivative forms of aesthetics have developed as contemporary and transitory forms of inquiry associated with the field of aesthetics which include the post-modern, psychoanalytic, scientific, and mathematical among others.
Early-twentieth-century artists, poets and composers challenged existing notions of beauty, broadening the scope of art and aesthetics. In , Eli Siegel , American philosopher and poet, founded Aesthetic Realism , the philosophy that reality itself is aesthetic, and that "The world, art, and self explain each other: each is the aesthetic oneness of opposites. Various attempts have been made to define Post-Modern Aesthetics. The challenge to the assumption that beauty was central to art and aesthetics, thought to be original, is actually continuous with older aesthetic theory; Aristotle was the first in the Western tradition to classify "beauty" into types as in his theory of drama, and Kant made a distinction between beauty and the sublime.
What was new was a refusal to credit the higher status of certain types, where the taxonomy implied a preference for tragedy and the sublime to comedy and the Rococo. Croce suggested that "expression" is central in the way that beauty was once thought to be central. George Dickie suggested that the sociological institutions of the art world were the glue binding art and sensibility into unities.
The discipline of aesthetics, which originated in the eighteenth century, mistook this transient state of affairs for a revelation of the permanent nature of art. Denis Dutton in "The Art Instinct" also proposed that an aesthetic sense was a vital evolutionary factor. Sublime painting, unlike kitsch realism , " Sigmund Freud inaugurated aesthetical thinking in Psychoanalysis mainly via the "Uncanny" as aesthetical affect. The relation of Marxist aesthetics to post-modern aesthetics is still a contentious area of debate.
Guy Sircello has pioneered efforts in analytic philosophy to develop a rigorous theory of aesthetics, focusing on the concepts of beauty,  love  and sublimity. British philosopher and theorist of conceptual art aesthetics, Peter Osborne , makes the point that "' post-conceptual art ' aesthetic does not concern a particular type of contemporary art so much as the historical- ontological condition for the production of contemporary art in general Gary Tedman has put forward a theory of a subjectless aesthetics derived from Karl Marx 's concept of alienation, and Louis Althusser 's antihumanism, using elements of Freud's group psychology, defining a concept of the 'aesthetic level of practice'.
Gregory Loewen has suggested that the subject is key in the interaction with the aesthetic object. The work of art serves as a vehicle for the projection of the individual's identity into the world of objects, as well as being the irruptive source of much of what is uncanny in modern life.
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As well, art is used to memorialize individuated biographies in a manner that allows persons to imagine that they are part of something greater than themselves. The field of experimental aesthetics was founded by Gustav Theodor Fechner in the 19th century. Experimental aesthetics in these times had been characterized by a subject -based, inductive approach. The analysis of individual experience and behaviour based on experimental methods is a central part of experimental aesthetics.
In particular, the perception of works of art,  music, or modern items such as websites  or other IT products  is studied. Experimental aesthetics is strongly oriented towards the natural sciences. Modern approaches mostly come from the fields of cognitive psychology or neuroscience neuroaesthetics . In the Hristak Mitev was the first and in the s, Abraham Moles and Frieder Nake were among the first to analyze links between aesthetics, information processing, and information theory..
One of his examples: mathematicians enjoy simple proofs with a short description in their formal language. Schmidhuber's theory explicitly distinguishes between what's beautiful and what's interesting , stating that interestingness corresponds to the first derivative of subjectively perceived beauty. Here the premise is that any observer continually tries to improve the predictability and compressibility of the observations by discovering regularities such as repetitions and symmetries and fractal self-similarity.
Whenever the observer's learning process which may be a predictive artificial neural network ; see also Neuroesthetics leads to improved data compression such that the observation sequence can be described by fewer bits than before, the temporary interestingness of the data corresponds to the number of saved bits.
This compression progress is proportional to the observer's internal reward, also called curiosity reward. A reinforcement learning algorithm is used to maximize future expected reward by learning to execute action sequences that cause additional interesting input data with yet unknown but learnable predictability or regularity.
The principles can be implemented on artificial agents which then exhibit a form of artificial curiosity. Mathematical considerations, such as symmetry and complexity , are used for analysis in theoretical aesthetics. This is different from the aesthetic considerations of applied aesthetics used in the study of mathematical beauty.
Aesthetic considerations such as symmetry and simplicity are used in areas of philosophy, such as ethics and theoretical physics and cosmology to define truth , outside of empirical considerations. The fact that judgments of beauty and judgments of truth both are influenced by processing fluency , which is the ease with which information can be processed, has been presented as an explanation for why beauty is sometimes equated with truth.
Computational approaches to aesthetics emerged amid efforts to use computer science methods "to predict, convey, and evoke emotional response to a piece of art. Since about , computer scientists have attempted to develop automated methods to infer aesthetic quality of images. A study by Y. Li and C. Hu employed Birkhoff's measurement in their statistical learning approach where order and complexity of an image determined aesthetic value. There have also been relatively successful attempts with regard to chess [ further explanation needed ] and music.
Watson Research Center. Evolutionary aesthetics refers to evolutionary psychology theories in which the basic aesthetic preferences of Homo sapiens are argued to have evolved in order to enhance survival and reproductive success. Another example is that body symmetry and proportion are important aspects of physical attractiveness which may be due to this indicating good health during body growth.
Evolutionary explanations for aesthetical preferences are important parts of evolutionary musicology , Darwinian literary studies , and the study of the evolution of emotion. As well as being applied to art, aesthetics can also be applied to cultural objects, such as crosses or tools.
For example, aesthetic coupling between art-objects and medical topics was made by speakers working for the US Information Agency  Art slides were linked to slides of pharmacological data, which improved attention and retention by simultaneous activation of intuitive right brain with rational left.
It can also be used in topics as diverse as mathematics , gastronomy , fashion and website design. The philosophy of aesthetics as a practice has been criticized by some sociologists and writers of art and society. Raymond Williams , for example, argues that there is no unique and or individual aesthetic object which can be extrapolated from the art world, but rather that there is a continuum of cultural forms and experience of which ordinary speech and experiences may signal as art. By "art" we may frame several artistic "works" or "creations" as so though this reference remains within the institution or special event which creates it and this leaves some works or other possible "art" outside of the frame work, or other interpretations such as other phenomenon which may not be considered as "art".
Pierre Bourdieu disagrees with Kant's idea of the "aesthetic". He argues that Kant's "aesthetic" merely represents an experience that is the product of an elevated class habitus and scholarly leisure as opposed to other possible and equally valid "aesthetic" experiences which lay outside Kant's narrow definition. Timothy Laurie argues that theories of musical aesthetics "framed entirely in terms of appreciation, contemplation or reflection risk idealizing an implausibly unmotivated listener defined solely through musical objects, rather than seeing them as a person for whom complex intentions and motivations produce variable attractions to cultural objects and practices".
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the 19th century art movements, see Aestheticism. For the music genre, see Vaporwave. Branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of art, beauty, and taste. Plato Kant Nietzsche. Buddha Confucius Averroes. Main article: Evolutionary aesthetics. Main article: Applied aesthetics. Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved Richard Harmet, et al. Michael Kelly".
Oxford Dictionaries - English. Retrieved 22 October Online Etymology Dictionary. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Values of Beauty: Historical Essays in Aesthetics. Cambridge University Press. Dickie, George , Letta Cole, Barbara; et al. Zalta, Edward N. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University. A History of Six Ideas: an essay in aesthetics. Ideas and Beliefs in Architecture and Industrial design : How attitudes, orientations, and underlying assumptions shape the built environment. Oslo School of Architecture and Design. Aesthetics: The Big Questions.
Empirical Studies of the Arts. Amsterdam: Rodopi.
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The Norton Anthology of Theory and Criticism. New York: W. The Creation of Art. International Review of the Aesthetics and Sociology of Music.
Related Pleasing And Acceptable: An Invitation to Discovery
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